External Walls Openings Windows Doors (Lecture) G#19226

GBE Lecture WallOpeningWindowDoor A02 BRM 221018 9H1 PDF Handout Cover

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External Walls Openings Windows Doors Lecture

External Walls Openings Windows Doors Lecture
About:


  • File Name: GBE Lecture Wall Opening Window Door
  • File Type: PPTX and PDF
  • File Size: 29.3 Mb (PPTX) 22.4 Mb (S67) 4 Mb (9H8)
  • Number of Slides: 67
  • Scope: Performance of External Walls, Openings, Windows, Doors, Internal partitions
  • Extract: none, See Full text below
  • Content: Extracts from POED, Principles of Element Design
  • Created for: RIBA Part 1 Year 2 Architecture & Interior Design Students
  • Presented to: UH University Hatfield
  • Author: UH original embellished by BrianSpecMan aka Brian Murphy BSc Dip Arch (Hons+Dist)
  • © GBE NGS ASWS 2017 – 2018
  • Created: 16/10/2018
  • Revision: A02
  • Updated: 22/10/2018
  • Previously published on Scribd: Not Applicable,
  • Scribd reads: Not applicable
  • CI/SfB: (NN)
  • CAWS 1987: LNN
  • CAWS 2012: NN:NN:NN
  • Uniclass 1 1997: LNNNN
  • Uniclass 2 2012:
  • Uniclass 3 2015:
  • Tags: External Walls, Doors, Windows, Performance, Principles, Fault finding
  • ProductSets: Methods of Construction, Facade, Materials, Building Elements,
  • UserGroups: Students, Architects, Assistants, Technicians, Structural Engineers, Constructors

© GBE NGS ASWS BrianMurphy aka BrianSpecMan
24th October 2018

External Walls Openings Windows Doors Lecture
Images:


GBE Lecture WallOpeningWindowDoor A02 BRM 221018 S1 Show Cover PDF

GBE Lecture WallOpeningWindowDoor A02 BRM 221018 S1 Show Cover PDF

Cover Slide


Content Slide


GBE Lecture WallOpeningWindowDoor A02 BRM 221018 9H1 PDF Handout Cover

GBE Lecture WallOpeningWindowDoor A02 BRM 221018 9H1 PDF Handout Cover

Handout Cover


Documents


UofH Part 1 Year 2 Schedule A03 BRM 201018 PNG

UofH Part 1 Year 2 Schedule A03 BRM 201018 PNG


Cover Image TM60 CIBSE

Cover Image TM60 CIBSE


© GBE NGS ASWS BrianMurphy aka BrianSpecMan
24th October 2018

External Walls Openings Windows Doors Lecture
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© GBE NGS ASWS BrianMurphy aka BrianSpecMan
24th October 2018

External Walls Openings Windows Doors Lecture
About:


4 Quotes for today:

  • Build Tight > Ventilate Right
  • Fabric First (Eco bling last)
  • No Insulation without Ventilation (PAS 2035)
  • Build Light > Insulate Right > Solar Tight

>40 years into 1 Hour won’t go

  • So I am providing links to other information if you want to know more

Question Everything

  • Don’t assume that I know everything
  • Don’t assume I have cherry picked the best bits
  • Don’t assume what your being told is the whole story
  • Some will hide what they don’t want you to know

 

  • Do your best with what you know
  • When you know better
  • Do better

Today’s Lecture

  • External Wall
  • Openings
  • Windows
  • Doors
  • Internal Walls/Partitions
  • Function + Performance
  • Principles of Element Design
  • Fabric First: make the building fabric do all the work
  • Or you end up with services making up the difference
  • We need buildings that do not need loads of services
  • consuming loads of energy for the rest of the building’s life
  • But we do need low level deliberate purposeful ventilation or we die from poor indoor air quality:
  • CO2 Carbon Dioxide and VOC Volatile Organic Compounds, Formaldehyde

Wall Actions

  • Gravity: downward pull
  • Wind: Motive, Destructive, Penetrative
  • Rain: Moisture deposition, penetration
  • Snow: Moisture deposition, loading
  • Moisture vapour: permeation, surface and interstitial condensation, insulation impaired, material degradation
  • Sun: Temp variation, thermal movement, solar heat gains, Chemical decomposition
  • Dirt and Dust: infiltration, deposition, surface pollution
  • Chemicals: corrosion, disintegration, decomposition
  • Sound: Noise nuisance, from within and from without
  • Attack: Manual, Ballistics, Bomb Blast
  • Thermal: heat loss, radiant coolth, condensation, stack effect

Wall Reactions

  • Gravity: Support & restraint
  • Wind: rigidity, resilience, sealing, air tightness layers and detailing
  • Rain: deflection, impervious skin, absorption and drainage, sealing
  • Moisture vapour: resistance, hygro-scopicity, permeability, ‘breathing’, moisture mass
  • Snow: deflection, impervious skin, absorption and drainage, sealing
  • Sun: movement joints, insulation, shielding, invulnerable materials, decrement delay
  • Dirt and Dust: repulsion, exclusion, shielding, cleaning, covering
  • Chemicals: invulnerable materials, exclusion,
  • Sound: Insulation, absorption, acoustic mass, separation, isolation,
  • Attack: toughness, lamination, edge restraint, edge protection
  • Insulating: thermal insulation, k and U value, thermal mass, thermal bridge avoidance/minimisation,
  • Glass: G value,

Principles of Element Design

  • Appearance
  • Interior and exterior materials and finishes
    • Structural strength and stability
  • Load-bearing
  • Wind resistance
    • Weather barrier
  • Rain, snow, wind, sun,
  • dirt dust pollution
  • Durability
    • Moisture resistance, frost, mould
    • Moisture Mass & Hygroscopicity
    • Ozone and sunlight degradation
  • Thermal Performance
    • Heat Resistance: loss and gain
    • Condensation Avoidance
    • Airtightness
    • Avoidance of Cold Bridges
    • Thermal Mass
  • Movement
    • Structural , thermal, moisture, Frost
    • Chemical
  • Principles of Element Design
  • Acoustic Performance
    • Resistance, absorption
  • Fire Performance
    • Surface spread of flame
    • Fire Resistance
  • Security
  • Inspection and maintenance
    • Inside & out
  • Pest infestation
    • Termites,
    • Termite Barriers
  • Rising damp
    • Barriers
    • Capillary Attraction, Moisture Transport
    • Hygroscopic or Hydrophobic
    • Frost action
  • Health
    • Moisture Mass
    • Low allergy materials

Weather Envelope

  • A building has more than one orientation,
  • Subject to different moisture uptake, wind driven rain penetration and solar radiation.
  • All of this is variable of over time:
  • Diurnal (night day)
  • Annual (through seasons).
  • Static analysis is inadequate
  • Dynamic Hygro/Hydro/thermal moisture movement analysis is essential.
  • BS 5250 is inadequate
  • WUFI or Delphin essential

This is not UK construction practice or thicknesses.

Vapour barrier in cavity masonry does not happen in UK

150 to 300 mm insulation not precise (for a calculation).

Beware of incomplete diagrams:

  • It shows the ‘heat flow’ gradient from inside to outside
  • It does not show the ‘vapour diffusion’ line
  • It does not show the crossing point so the ‘Due Point’ is entirely speculative
  • There is no ‘evidence’ here, beware Birkhauser

Build Light > Insulate Right > Solar Tight

Solid Wall, Cavity Wall, Timber frame

  • EWI External Solid Wall Insulation
  • Partial Fill, Masonry Cavity, Wall insulation
  • Insulated timber frame inner leaf, Masonry outer leaf
  • IWI Internal Solid Wall Insulation
  • Full Fill Masonry cavity Wall Insulation
  • Insulated timber frame single lap concrete or clay tile cladding

Platform Timber Frame

Conventional Thinking:

  • Vapour Barrier (VB) and Breather membrane (BM) needed with non-breathing insulation

Current thinking:

  • Airtightness layer (ATL) or Intelligent ATL and Wind tightness (WTL) needed for Breathing insulation
  • Platform frame and ATLs are more complicated but understood
  • Plastic, glass and stone wool is okay winter insulation (conduction) but not good summer insulation (radiation)
  • Current U values need c.300 mm of thermal insulation
  • Depending upon insulation materials
  • Breathing insulation may need to be thicker
  • Studs 140 or 190 mm inadequate for the job

Timber framed external wall

  • Glulam Lintel is uninsulated = Thermal bridge
  • Stud size: 140 or 190 mm inadequate for U value
  • Window placement not ideal only just aligns with insulation
  • But framing makes wide thermal bridges
  • Concrete plinth = thermal bridge
  • Glulam Lintel is uninsulated = Thermal bridge.
  • Potential rot between timber rainscreen battens if less than 8 mm gap:
  • Gap between faces minimum 8 mm at bottom and wider at top.
  • Double section below windows = thermal bridge
  • Glass wool/stone wool good for winter, bad for summer overheating:
  • Cellulose or dense wood fibre necessary

Wall Openings

  • Windows
  • Doors
  • Ventilation Louvres (not covered by this)
  • Solar shading of opening (not covered by this)

Windows Actions

  • Gravity: downward pull
  • Wind: Motive, Destructive, Penetrative
  • Rain: Moisture deposition, penetration
  • Snow: Moisture deposition, loading
  • Sun: Temp variation, thermal movement, solar heat gains, Chemical decomposition
  • Dirt and Dust: infiltration, deposition, surface pollution
  • Chemicals: corrosion, disintegration, decomposition
  • Sound: Noise nuisance, from within and from without
  • Attack: Manual, Ballistics, Bomb Blast
  • Heat:

Windows Reactions

  • Gravity: Support & restraint
  • Wind: rigidity, resilience, sealing
  • Rain: deflection, impervious skin, absorption and drainage, sealing
  • Snow: deflection, impervious skin, absorption and drainage, sealing
  • Sun: movement joints, insulation, shielding, invulnerable materials,
  • Dirt and Dust: repulsion, exclusion, sheilding, cleaning
  • Chemicals: invulnerable materials, exclusion,
  • Sound: Insulation
  • Attack: toughness, lamination, edge restraint, edge protection
  • Heat: insulating glazing, low E glass, Solar control glass

Windows Outside

  • Daylight, Sunlight, Glare, Solar Heat gains,
  • Sound Insulation
  • Fresh air, ventilation and smell exclusion
  • Smoke control: Smoke outlet & air inlet
  • Wind driven rain and snow
  • Privacy from overlooking
  • Cleaning
  • Security
  • Insect exclusion

Windows Inside

  • Statutory Ventilation areas, trickle ventilation
  • Thermal insulation, heat losses: U values G F W
  • Solar heat gains: G value of glass
  • Emissivity: Low E glass coatings
  • Comfort conditions:
    • 17 degrees internally, close to wall temperature
  • Views out and eye level
  • Safety, Containment, Impact,
    • Ironmongery, Balustrade
  • Fire: Non-combustible, Low smoke generation
  • Statutory Window Area: Habitable areas
  • Openings: Not/obvious lintel

External Door Actions

  • Gravity: Downward pull, rotation
  • Wind: Motive, Destructive, Penetrative, whistling
  • Rain: Moisture deposition, penetration
  • Snow: Moisture deposition, loading
  • Dirt and Dust: infiltration, deposition, surface pollution
  • Chemicals: corrosion, disintegration, decomposition
  • Sound: Noise nuisance, from within and from without
  • Attack: Manual, Ballistics, Bomb Blast
  • Heat: Solar Heat Gains, Heat passage

External Door Reactions

  • Gravity: Ironmongery Support & restraint
  • Wind: rigidity, resilience, sealing
  • Rain: deflection, impervious skin, absorption and drainage, sealing
  • Snow: deflection, impervious skin, absorption and drainage, sealing
  • Sun: movement joints, insulation, shielding, invulnerable materials,
  • Dirt and Dust: repulsion, exclusion, sheilding, cleaning
  • Chemicals: invulnerable materials, exclusion,
  • Sound: Insulation
  • Attack: toughness, lamination, edge restraint, edge protection
  • Heat: insulating glazing, low E glass, Solar control glass

Door Outside

  • Daylight, Sunlight, Glare, Solar Heat gains,
  • Sound Insulation
  • Fresh air, ventilation and smell exclusion
  • Smoke control: Smoke outlet & air inlet
  • Wind driven rain and snow
  • Privacy from overlooking
  • Cleaning
  • Security
  • Insect exclusion

Door Inside

  • Statutory Ventilation areas: trickle ventilation
    • When is a door a windows?
  • Thermal insulation, heat losses:
  • U values: Glass, Frame, Door
  • Solar heat gains: G value of glass
  • Emissivity: Low E glass coatings
  • Comfort conditions:
    • 17 degrees internally, close to wall temperature
  • Views out and eye level
  • Safety, Containment, Impact,
  • Ironmongery,
  • Fire: Non-combustible, Low smoke generation

Partition Actions

  • Gravity:
    • downward pull, self weight,
    • Furniture and Lining loads
  • Dynamic forces:
    • Human impacts, wheeled furniture impacts
    • Internal Wind Pressure Buffeting:
      • Pressure, Rattling, Motive, Destructive, Penetrative
  • Moisture vapour:
    • permeation, condensation, moisture mass, moisture moderation, insulation impaired, hygroscopicity, material degradation
  • Sun:
    • Temp variation, thermal movement, heat gains, Chemical decomposition
  • Dirt and Dust: infiltration, deposition, surface pollution
  • Chemicals: corrosion, disintegration, decomposition
  • Sound: Noise nuisance, from within
  • Attack: Manual, Ballistics, Bomb Blast
  • Thermal: Solar heat gains/loss, thermal mass, phase change, stack effect,
  • Electromagnetic radiation: sickness for susceptible occupants

Partition Reactions

  • Gravity: Support & restraint
  • Wind pressure buffeting:
    • rigidity, resilience, sealing, air tightness layers and detailing
  • Moisture vapour:
    • resistance, hygro-scopicity, permeability, breathing, moisture mass
  • Sun:
    • movement joints, insulation, shielding, invulnerable materials
  • Dirt and Dust: repulsion, exclusion, shielding, cleaning
  • Chemicals: invulnerable materials, exclusion,
  • Sound:
    • Insulation, absorption, acoustic mass, separation, isolation,
  • Attack:
    • toughness, lamination, edge restraint, edge protection
  • Insulating: thermal insulation, thermal mass,
  • Electromagnetic radiation: Absorbs, shields

Partition properties

  • Wall Categories
  • Partition, Party/Separating walls, Compartment walls
  • Systems
  • Brick/block units, Monolithic, frame and sheet, sandwich panels
  • Appearance
  • Structural strength and stability
  • Loadbearing, non-loadbearing
  • Wind pressure buffeting post, stability stiffening posts, head and abutment restraint, joint reinforcement
  • Fire Protection
  • Fire resistance, spread of flame
  • Stability, integrity, insulation
  • Durability and maintenance
  • Thermal performance
  • Insulation, thermal mass, cold bridge avoidance, air tightness
  • Acoustic performance:
  • Noise barrier, sound absorption, flanking sound,

Partition Properties

  • Movement
  • Thermal, structural, moisture
  • Security
  • Prevent Entry, Resist Attack, Restrain occupants
  • Party walls
  • Structural fire precautions, structural stability, Condensation and Insulation, sound control
  • Compartment Walls
  • Fixed Partitions
  • Relocate able Partitions
  • Cubicles
  • Mobile Partitions

© GBE NGS ASWS BrianMurphy aka BrianSpecMan
24th October 2018

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