GBE Passive Performance (Lecture) G#32048

5CTA1140 Lecture 06A Passive Performance Services Response GBE A01 BRM 251119 S1 PNG

GBE Passive Performance Lecture

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GBE Passive Performance Lecture
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GBE Lecture Metadata

  • File Name:
  • File Type:
    • PDF Handout,
    • PDF Show,
    • PPTX Show
  • File Size:
    • PDF Handout: 10 mb
    • PDF Show: 32 mb
    • PPTX Show: 32 mb
  • Number of Slides:
    • PDF Handout: 14 Pages
    • PDF Show: 123 Slides
    • PPTX: 123 of 126 Slides
  • Scope: Passive Performance Services Response, Quotes, Principles, Checklists, UH Part 1 Year 2 Advanced Technology Task 2, Acoustics, Lighting, Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, Services Response
  • Created for: RIBA Part 2 Year 1 Architecture students
  • Presented to: University of Hertfordshire,
  • Author: BrianSpecMan aka Brian Murphy BSc Dip Arch (Hons+Dist)
  • © GBE NGS ASWS 2019
  • Created: 25/11/2019
  • Revision: A02
  • Updated: 27/11/2019
  • Previously published on Scribd: N/A
  • Scribd reads: N/A
  • CI/SfB: (NN)
  • CAWS 1987: LNN
  • CAWS 2012: NN:NN:NN
  • Uniclass 1 1997: LNNNN
  • Uniclass 2 2012:
  • Uniclass 3 2015:
  • Tags: Quotes, Principles, Checklists, task 2, Acoustics, Lighting, Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, Services Response
  • ProductSets: Methods of Construction, Materials, Building Elements,
  • UserGroups: Students, Architects, Assistants, Technicians, Structural Engineers, Constructors

GBE Passive Performance Lecture


GBE Lecture Text

For images see the middle column or watch the Lecture PDF

(this is based on the A01 issues of the file) (to be updated)

Passive Performance
 Services Response

Noise Light Heat Vent Cool

UH RIBA Part 1 Year 2 Lecture 6 Architects & Interior Design Architects

This Presentation on GBE:

  • Find this file on GBE website at:
  • https://GreenBuildingEcyclopaedia.uk/?P=32048

Go there for:

  • the latest update
  • versions presented to different audiences
  • the whole presentation all of the hidden slides
  • other file formats:
    • Handout, Show, PDF, PPTX
  • Links to other related GBE CPD and related GBE content

Scope

  • Quotes
  • Principles
  • Checklists for Task 2 submission in each of 6 topics
  • Acoustics Noise/Sound
  • Lighting
  • Heating
  • Ventilation
  • Cooling
  • Services Response

Quotes

  • Fabric First > Services Last
  • Build Tight > Ventilate Right
  • Build Light > Insulate Right > Solar Tight
  • Retrofit: No Insulation without Ventilation

Principles

  • Fabric First
  • Make the building do all the work
    • Why make a building that need to be heated/cooled if you don’t need to
  • Do not rely on energy intensive services to fix what you did not address
  • Use services to only fill the gap that the building could not provide
  • See: Service Response at end

Acoustics Sound/Noise

  • Sources, Barriers, Distribution, Refection, Reverberation, Absorption, Dispersion, Attenuation, Shape of Space, Surfaces, 
Respond to Function, Quiet v Loud

Purpose of Acoustic Control

  • Noise is sound in the wrong place, too loud, too distracting, etc.
  • Noise can get about via air or via materials, direct or indirect by flanking through air gaps in construction
  • Very hard surfaces reflect sound to reverberate for long periods making speech difficult to understand
  • Highly absorbent surfaces make sounds disappear and not be heard
  • Sounds from adjacent spaces may flank around partitions make concentration more difficult
  • Excessive noise can create stress in the listener
  • Using competent construction noise and sound can be reflected, isolated, absorbed, diffused, transmitted

Noise

  • Consider the Sources:
    • Internal and external, inward and outward
      • External components of building:
        • solar shading, light shelves, ventilation grilles
      • Controllable v uncontrollable
        • Off site or on site
      • Mitigate or Adapt?
        • To prevent or to deal with consequences
      • Caused by other factors:
        • External wind pressure > Air leaky construction
          • Wind whistling through door and window frames
        • Internal Wind Pressure Buffeting
          • Rattling Components, doors, ironmongery
        • External noise issues can apply to internal too

Respond to the Function

  • Reading rooms need quiet concentration
  • Entrance Halls are places of arrival, surveillance, orientation, rendezvous,
    • requires conversation: meeting, greeting, questions and answers
    • It will be a noisy space that can be accepted

Internal Acoustics
Source > Route > Problem

Internal Acoustics
Source > Problem > Solution

Internal Acoustics
Source > Problem > Solution

Source of Sound or Noise

Acoustics of Shaped Spaces

Acoustics of Shaped Spaces

Modifying Acoustics of Spaces

Reflection Absorption 
Diffusion Attenuation

Acoustic materials

Acoustics Assessment

  • Regional/Local map and scales essential
  • External noise sources: Airports, Roads, Plant
  • Plans of whole (site or building) and indicate part
  • Building Profile: Section of whole and part
  • Source of external and internal noises, volume, distance, topography of route to site,
  • Analysis: Plans Sections Elevations:
  • Analysis of existing ventilation to be aware of
  • Acoustic Analysis and your response
  • Any internal enclosure and glazing
  • Any interventions by you to provide Acoustic control
    • Background or task acoustics or both

Light/Dark

  • Sunlight, Daylight, Moonlight, Artificial light, UV degradation, Dark, Black out, Control, Solar Control, Light Shelves, Reflection, Concentration, Refraction,

Purpose of Light Control

  • Light coloured roofs are used for albedo effect for solar reflection
  • Excessive sunlight light contrasting with shade can lead to eye strain and headaches
  • Sunlight brings heat which may be undesirable,
  • Receptions in sunlit atria can lead to excess sun tanning, sun-stroke, un-wellness
  • Glare can be by reflections off metallic surfaces, on monitors (CRT in particular) reflective glass worse than matt glass
  • Reflective surfaces can be used to advantage in light shelves to disperse light
  • Glare can be from light fittings, through windows or solar shading, in peripheral vision
  • Excessive light glare can lead to distraction potentially accidents and migraine
  • Ultra violet light can degrade plastics/rubber materials, fading of synthetic colours
  • UV filtration can prevent this in laminated glazing PVB interlayers, and surrounds in light fittings
  • UV absorbent surfaces remove UV from sunlight on each bounce
  • Highly absorbent matt black surfaces absorbs light
  • Too much daylight can make projected images difficult to see
  • Coloured surfaces distort the projected colours
  • Mid tone grey surfaces are better for projecting images (black to white get = chance)
  • High saturation pigmented (grey or silver) paints reflect colours accurately vividly
  • Control of artificial light saves energy, not needed closest to windows
  • Light off if no people present, proximity actuation
  • Lights off in daylight, on at night time, if people present
  • Use of sun pipes

Light

  • Sunlight Daylight Overcast Moonlight
    • Directional v Diffused v Filtered v Reflected
  • Sunlight v Shade:
    • In spaces, on walls, floors; outside: facades, paving
    • Sunlight with heat: E>S>W (Northern Hemisphere)
    • Daylight without heat: N (ditto)
  • Sundial Effect: Rising Panning Falling
  • Shifting: Winter Equinox Summer
  • Timing: Equator 6am-6pm Poles: 24hr night or day
  • Colours: Red White Grey Blue
  • Ultra Violet Light degradation of material
  • Concentration: Walkie Scorchie

Light Assessment

  • North Point and scales essential
  • Northern or Southern Hemisphere?
  • Plans of whole (site or building) and indicate part
  • Building Profile: Section of whole and part
  • Exiting glazing positions, sized
  • Window treatments if any (inside or out)
  • Analysis: Plans Sections Elevations: sundial paths
  • Shadow analysis: floors and walls, inside and out
  • Your response to shadow analysis
  • Any internal enclosure and glazing
  • Analysis of existing light to be exploited
  • Any interventions by you to provide light
    • Background or task lighting or both

Heat

  • Sun paths, Solar Control: internal/external, Sunlight, Sun paths, Shadow, Solar access, Solar heat gain, Surface Thermal Mass, cyclical storage, overnight ventilation purging, Phase Change materials,

Purpose of Heat Control

  • Excessive heat can kill, 2003 heat wave
  • Sahara temperatures across Europe,
  • 20,000 people died in France,
  • 100s in UK
  • 20% of UK homes overheat
  • Higher percentage of new homes overheat
  • MMC homes will choose wrong materials for insulation and overheat
  • Top floors overheat (LRC overheats)
  • District heating overheats corridors and flats/rooms
  • Significantly better insulation needed on all heat pipes
  • Solar Hear gain in glazed staircases over hears flats via corridors
  • 80% of UK conservatories are heated squandering energy
  • Phase Change Materials are rarely used effectively
  • Save energy, save carbon, save costs

Passive Heat

  • North Point Essential
  • Sunlight
  • Directional v Diffused v Filtered v Reflected
  • Sunlight v Shade:
  • In spaces, on walls, floors; outside: facades, paving
  • Sunlight with heat: E>S>W (N Hemisphere)
  • Daylight without heat: N (ditto)
  • Sundial Effect: Rising Panning Falling
  • Shifting: Winter Equinox Summer
  • Timing: Equator 6am-6pm Poles: 24hr night or day
  • Colours: Red White Grey Blue

Active Heat

  • Lighting: lower wattage, common today
  • Hot water: cylinder constant or as required, uninsulated pipes
  • Heating: 16 hours of 24 hour day
  • Cooking: Intermittent
  • TV ITC Equipment
    • Standby modes 80%
  • Fridge/Freezer: 24 hours
  • Humans at rest 100 watts, some animals and babies less
  • Olympic Athlete 2000 watts at peak
  • Passivhaus: exploits it all, recycles heat only to warm fresh air coming in
  • Mechanical Ventilation with Heat Recovery MVHR

Heat Assessment

  • North Point and scales essential
  • Northern or Southern Hemisphere?
  • Plans of whole (site or building) and indicate part
  • Building Profile: Section of whole and part
  • Exiting glazing positions, sized
  • Window treatments if any (inside or out)
  • Analysis: Plans Sections Elevations: sundial paths
  • Shadow analysis: floors and walls, inside and out
  • Your response to shadow analysis
  • Any internal enclosure and glazing
  • Construction Assemblies showing insulation and mass
  • Analysis of existing heat to be exploited
  • Any interventions by you to provide heat

Ventilation

  • Passive Active Mechanical
  • Avoiding Air conditioning “Comfort Cooling”

Purpose of Ventilation Control

  • Control Indoor Air Quality IAQ
  • Control Humidity levels, Moisture Content of materials, minimise risk of mould
  • Control Temperature
    • Remove solar heat gain warmed air
    • Cross ventilation
    • Overnight purging of thermal mass heat
  • Control release or remove Smells
  • Control VOC levels (off-gassing from plastics, synthetics, adhesives, paints)
  • Maintain Life: Airtightness levels below 3 need deliberate and dedicated ventilation

Passive Vent

  • Open Windows and doors let fresh air in, to cross flow ventilate building
  • Open roof lights/roof vents
  • Stack effect up stairwells in summer
    • Need doors to close in winter
  • Passivhaus: can be ventilated by opening windows but turn off the MVHR
  • Conservatories attached to house need ventilation top and bottom and be closed from house (Building Regulations)

Passive Interventions

  • Passive vents actuated by humidity do not open for smells
  • Clay finishes absorb smells and moisture
  • High Titanium Dioxide coatings clean the air
    • But extremely high environmental impact to make it
  • Essence of Cherry eats bacteria in the air
  • Opening opaque vents in walls becoming popular
    • (insect grilles and security essential)
  • Passive Ventilation with Heat Recovery
    • Existing Fireplace and Chimney
    • New duct inserted with PVHR cowl on top

Active Vent

  • BedZED cowls
  • Wind pressure drives fresh air in
  • Pushes stale air out
  • Transfers heat-only from outgoing to incoming air

Mechanical Ventilation

  • Passivhaus: MVHR whole house system
    • Extract from Kitchen and Bathrooms
    • Input into Living and bedrooms
    • Circulate via corridor
  • Extractors in Bathrooms and Kitchen (humidity smells removed but heat lost)
    • MVHR through walls are available too

Ventilation Assessment

  • North Point and scales essential
  • Prevailing wind rose
  • Plans of whole (site or building) and indicate part
  • Building Profile: Section of whole and part
  • Wind access to site, shadows, urban climate issues if applicable
  • Analysis: Plans Sections Elevations:
  • Your response to wind and shade analysis
  • Any internal enclosure and glazing
  • Analysis of existing ventilation to be exploited
  • Any interventions by you to provide ventilation
    • Background or task lighting or both

Cooling

  • Choose Passive Active Mechanical Ventilation
  • Avoiding Air Conditioning wherever possible
  • Greenwash “Comfort Cooling”

Purpose of Cooling Control

  • Remove excess heat and humidity
  • Air conditioning is energy intensive to heat, cool and change relative humidity
  • Depending on fuel source also carbon intensive, and probably 24 hours
  • Rare books, photographic collections, exhibits, art or sculpture
  • May need to be kept at a low temperatures and humidity to avoid mould growth
  • Laboratories or chemical stores may need to be kept cool to avoid spontaneous combustion
  • Food storage mountains need to be kept cool
  • If the building fabric lets in solar radiation heat by using wrong materials with wrong decrement delay in the roof and E>S>W facades
    • the building will need to be cooled more on sunny days
  • 100% fixed glazed facades need 100% air conditioning to control: heat and humidity from people, equipment and solar heat gains
    • Canary Wharf Tower: 1 million watts from people alone

Cooling Assessment

  • Previous Light/Heat/Wind assessments
    • (combine as 1 diagram?)
    • Heat sources than need to be cooled
    • Wind access to site, shadows, urban climate issues if applicable
  • North Point and scales essential
  • Plans of whole (site or building) and indicate part
  • Building Profile: Section of whole and part
  • Analysis: Plans Sections Elevations:
  • Your response to:
    • Heat/Wind and shade analysis
    • Any internal enclosure and glazing
    • Analysis of existing ventilation to be exploited for cooling
  • Any interventions by you to provide cooling
    • Background or task cooling or both

Services Response

  • Halve Demand: Improve passive measures: 50% reduction
  • Double efficiency: effective controls: 75%
  • Halve the carbon: Obtain energy from renewable sources: 87.5% reduction
  • If your proposals cannot meet all the requirements in a passive way
  • Provide the remainder by mechanical or artificial means

Purpose of Services Response

  • Provide comfort conditions for occupants
  • Reduce Energy Demand
  • Reduce Carbon in that energy
  • Fuel Autonomy
    • Reduce reliance upon external energy sources and their escalating costs
  • Reduce Costs
    • Reduce Business Overheads
    • Reduce Home running costs

Services Response Assessment

  • Justify their need
  • Propose services needed to meet residual demand
  • Ensure the services acknowledge each other and are integrated where important to do so
  • Waste from one may be a resource for another
  • Describe systems and their controls
  • Describe their locations is scheme
  • Integrate in floors and reflected ceiling plans, room elevations and roof if required

© GBE NGS ASWS Brian Murphy aka BrianSpecMan *
25th November 2019 – 27th November 2019

GBE Passive Performance Lecture
See Also:


GBE Video

Acoustics: Reverberation time Long and Short

Thank you Joe Cilia (@AISJoe) for having the mindfullness to record it for others to hear.


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© GBE NGS ASWS Brian Murphy aka BrianSpecMan *
25th November 2019 – 27th November 2019

GBE Passive Performance Lecture

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